various types of marketing

Marketing Evolution  

    3 P Selling : This happens during initial stages. For example during Industrial revolution. At this stage specialization took place, with the industrial revolution, wages were introduced. At this stage the farmers could produce and sell to the industrial workers. The marketing and the business concept was simple at this stage but later become more complicated eventually.          

           In marketing this stage is called the production stage, it took a while and Henry Ford perfected it. He came up with the car assembly and mass market was born. At this stage there was limited choice for the customer.

           The production stage was driven by providing product as well provide availability and affordability. The marketing mix at this point had 3 Ps, the product, the place and the price. Quoting Henry Ford on Model T, he said “they can have it in any color as long as is black” this makes it clear that the customer had no choice. Such a simple quote from a business leader of the time summarizes the way the market was back then. Analyzing your business today, are you at this stage or you have moved?

   4 P Selling :Once the players increase, each offering quality and well packaged products making competition stiff. 

    The stiff competition brought the need to take the products and talk about their benefits to the customers; this started a new posture called the selling posture. 

    In the selling postures the Ps increased by one new P. This new P is the promotion. Another thing came into picture; selling, and sales force becomes one single factor that determined the survival of any manufacturer. Salesmen become the most sought after, people who could move the products and beat the competition. Large sales forces denoted the power any business.

  During the selling stage, products were promoted and customers were sought to buy the manufactured products. This posture is still there and is used mostly by the affiliate programs as well as insurance companies, making the product without consulting with the customer and trying to push the product, it can be very frustrating. The business in this posture believes that there exists a department called sales and marketing. Is your business one of those still at this stage?

Modern Marketing:This is the concept where products are made to fit with theconsumers needs. Consumers are consulted through market research and other interactive forums and products to satisfy their needs are made. Where the selling concept emphases on the product, the marketing conceptemphasizes on the customer needs.       Any business using this posture is customer oriented and instead of making the product and trying to sell it, they first understand the need and wants of the customer and produce products to satisfy those needs.

            Marketing concept is strategic in its planning; it is always planning for today and the future. This is the most important posture for any on-line business to enable is capture today’s and future market.

various types of marketing

account-based marketing — marketing to individual, key accounts as markets of one (Wikipedia)

affiliate marketing — paying affiliates to send traffic/customers to your website/business (Affiliate Scout)

agile marketing — using agile development methodologies in the marketing department (a manifesto)

algorithmic marketing — using software algorithms to execute (semi-)automated marketing (computational)

ambush marketing — piggybacking marketing on a major event without paying for sponsorship (WSJ article)

analytical marketing — quantitative methods and models of marketing (Carnegie Mellon program)

article marketing — writing articles (online and offline) to promote one's business (Wikipedia)

B2B (business) marketing — marketing to other businesses (B2B Magazine)

B2C (consumer) marketing — marketing to consumers (B2C Marketing Insider)

B2P (person) marketing — marketing to persons, in business and life (New Marketing Labs post)

behavioral marketing — targeting advertising/offers based on user behavior (ClickZ column)

blackhat marketing — primarily in SEO, unethically fooling the search engines to game rank (

brand marketing — developing your brand, often contrasted to direct marketing (Best Brands 2010)

buzz marketing — getting people to talk about your stuff, similar to viral (Mark Hughes book)

call center marketing — outbound telemarketing and handling of inbound prospect/customer calls

campus marketing — marketing to (and often by) college students, campus ambassadors (Boston Globe)

catalog marketing — marketing through printed catalogs delivered in the mail (DIRECT article)

cause marketing — businesses marketing cooperatively with nonprofit(s) to mutual benefit (Alden Keene)

celebrity marketing — use of celebrities as spokespeople, for endorsements or testimonials (BSI post)

channel marketing — marketing promotions through wholesalers, distributers, resellers (definition)

closed loop marketing — measuring ROI from lifecycle of marketing to sales (Closed Loop Marketing blog)

cloud marketing — using software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications for marketing (

cooperative marketing — companies co-marketing a jointly developed product, service or brand (Wikipedia)

communal marketing — engaging the public in the development of a marketing campaign (Wikipedia)

community marketing — marketing by building an online community (Jeremiah Owyang's blog)

computational marketing — the marketing equivalent of computational finance (my post)

content marketing — producing useful or entertaining content for your audience (Chris Brogan's post)

contextual marketing — delivering relevant, optimal messages/offers, esp. online (HBS article)

controversial marketing — generating attention through controversy or conflict (Michael Gray's post)

conversational marketing — actively engaging with consumers in two-way conversations (Nokia preso)

conversion (rate) marketing — optimizing conversion rate in online marketing and sales (ion's blog)

conversion content marketing — a hybrid of content marketing and conversion marketing (SEL article)

corporate marketing — company-wide marketing and standards, esp. in multi-product firms (Forrester report)

cross-marketing — co-marketing, product bundling, co-promotion, licensing, etc. (Wikipedia)

culture marketing — branded content, the intersection of culture and marketing (Chief Marketer article)

data (web) marketing — using data as a marketing channel, esp. with the semantic web (my post)

database marketing — using databases, such as CRM systems, to drive marketing programs (The Book)

data-driven marketing — use data, especially analytics, to direct marketing decisions (Kellogg program)

digital marketing — marketing through digital channels, primarily the Internet (AdAge Digital)

direct marketing — marketing directly to audience, often without TV, radio, or print ads (DMA)

direct response marketing — direct marketing expressly designed to solicit a response (Wikipedia)

disruptive marketing — applying disruptive innovation in marketing to create new markets (Digital Tonto post)

diversity marketing — marketing to different culture groups in audience, i.e. in-culture marketing (TransCity)

door-to-door marketing — salespeople walking to houses, knocking on doors (MSNBC story)

drip marketing — sending pre-planned messages to prospects/customers on a schedule (Inside CRM article)

email marketing — emailing prospects/customers, either by list rental or express permission (Email Insider)

entrepreneurial marketing — marketing in start-ups and new ventures, often guerilla style (MIT course)

ethical marketingmarketing ethics for being socially/morally responsible (Wikipedia)

event marketing — running events such as trade shows, conferences, seminars, festivals (Event Marketer)

expeditionary marketing — forging new markets before competitors (HBR article)

experiential marketing — enabling sensory interactions with brands (Experiential Marketing Forum)

Facebook marketing — marketing on and through Facebook (SEOmoz Ultimate Guide)

field marketing — people selling and promoting in person, "in the field" (The Handbook)

geomarketing — geo-targeting for marketing tactics such as price, promotion (Geomarketing in Practice)

global marketing — marketing of products/firms worldwide, global strategy and structure (Forbes article)

green marketing — explicit promotion of products that are environmentally friendly (Green Marketing book)

guerilla marketing — low-budget, high-impact marketing, typically entrepreneurial (Jay Conrad Levison)

horizontal marketing — similar message across different groups/industries, in contrast to vertical marketing

inbound marketing — pulling in customers via content, instead of pushing ads or cold-calls (HubSpot)

industrial marketing — B2B marketing but specifically for large firms, esp. manufacturers (Wikipedia)

influence(r) marketing — focus on convincing a few influential people in a market (Influencer Marketing book)

informational marketing — providing useful/educational material to nurture audience, like content marketing

in-game marketing — in-game advertising, also known as advergaming, and in-game promotions (Wikipedia)

in-store marketing — promotions based at a retailer's location (In-Store Marketing Institute)

integrated marketing — coordination and integration of multiple marketing tools, channels, vehicles (ClickZ)

interactive marketing — interactions between marketers and prospects, mostly online (Forrester blog)

Internet marketing — synonymous with online marketing and web marketing (Wikipedia)

internal marketing — marketing to one's own employees to synchronize customer experiences (Wikipedia)

international marketing — marketing overseas/across national borders, same as global marketing (Wikipedia)

keyword marketing — researching and optimizing keywords in search marketing (WordStream blog)

left-brain marketing — roughly synonymous with analytical marketing (Left Brain Marketing blog)

local marketing — ad targeting and promotions to support brick-and-mortar stores (WilsonWeb)

Long Tail marketing — marketing to many niche segments that aggregate to a huge audience (Wikipedia)

loyalty marketing — focus on growing and retaining existing customers, e.g., rewards programs (Wikipedia)

mobile marketing — marketing delivered via mobile devices such as (smart)phones (Mobile Marketer)

multichannel marketing — using multiple channels to reach customers (Multichannel Marketing Metrics)

multicultural marketing — pursuing ethnic audiences with products, advertising, experiences (The Book)

multi-level marketing — marketing by recruiting others, who recruit more; e.g., pyramid scheme (Wikipedia)

neuromarketing — the intersection of brain/cognitive science and marketing (Neuromarketing blog)

new media marketing — essentially synonymous with online marketing, fading term (Wikipedia)

newsletter marketing — delivering regular newsletters to target audience via email or print (DIRECT article)

niche marketing — targeting very specific audience segments (Entrepreneur article)

non-traditional marketing — methods outside the norm, e.g., publicity stunts, guerrilla marketing (Inc. article)

offline marketing — all marketing that doesn't happen online, traditional marketing (MarketingSherpa)

one-to-one marketing — marketing to individual consumers: identify, differentiate, interact, customize (book)

online marketing — marketing online, same as Internet or web marketing (Online Marketing Summit)

outbound marketing — contact prospects via ads, cold calls, list rental; opposite of inbound (BridgeGroup)

outdoor marketing — examples: door hangers, car advertising, billboards, balloons (eHow article)

out-of-home marketing — marketing to people in public places, e.g., outdoor marketing (Wikipedia)

performance marketing — marketing driven by performance metrics and ROI (Performance Insider)

permission marketing — inspiring your audience to want to hear from you (Seth Godin's book)

personalized marketing — like one-to-one marketing, including product customization (Wikipedia)

persuasion marketing — derived from "persuasion architecture" for effective web marketing (the Eisenbergs)

point-of-sale marketing — advertising to customers at point of a purchase in a store (eHow article)

post-click marketing — user experience after an ad/email click, e.g., landing pages (ion's blog)

PPC marketing — pay-per-click marketing on search engines, ad networks, social sites (PPC Hero)

product marketing — marketing around a particular product, versus corporate marketing (Wikipedia)

promotional marketing — broadly speaking, almost any kind of marketing to attract customers (PROMO)

proximity marketing — localized wireless distribution of advertising associated with a place (Wikipedia)

pull marketing — pushing messages to prospects, synonymous with inbound marketing (The Power of Pull)

push marketing — prospects pull messages from you, synonymous with outbound marketing (Wikipedia)

real-time marketing — accelerating marketing in the age of speed (David Meerman Scott book)

referral marketing — encouraging/incentivizing existing customers to refer new customers (Wikipedia)

relationship marketing — emphasis on building long-term relationships with customers (Regis McKenna)

remarketing — modern meaning: behaviorally-targeted advertising (Google Ad Innovations)

reply marketing — replying to end-users with personalized messages, e.g., Old Spice campaign (Wikipedia)

scientific marketing — application of analytical testing/statistical methods in marketing (Scientific Advertising)

search (engine) marketing — organic and paid promotion via Google, Bing, etc. (Search Engine Land)

self marketing — marketing yourself, also known as personal branding (U.S. News article)

services marketing — approaches for selling services instead of products (Delivering Quality Service)
shadow marketing — unexpected marketing outside the control of the marketing department (my post)

shopper marketing — understanding how consumer shop across channels and formats (Wikipedia)

social marketing — changing people's behaviors for the better, not social media marketing (Squidoo)

social media marketing — interacting with prospects in social media channels (Social Media Insider)

sports marketing — use of sporting events, teams, and athletes to promote products (Wikipedia)

stealth marketing — ways of marketing surreptitiously to people, undercover marketing (HBR article)

street marketing — unconventional marketing in public places meant to engage prospects (Wikipedia)

technical marketing — marketing with technical depth to a technical audience (great post)

telemarketing — calling people on the phone with a pitch, usually uninvited (Wikipedia)

test-driven marketing — systematically and iteratively testing marketing ideas (Test-Driven Marketing)

time marketing — research on when to release and promote products in the market (Wikipedia)

trade show marketing — subset of event marketing, exhibiting and promoting at trade shows (TSNN)

traditional marketing — pre-Internet marketing methods and channels (MarketingProfs)

undercover marketing — when consumers don't know they're being steathily marketed to (Wikipedia)

user-generated marketing — marketing created by consumers, communal marketing (Disney campaign)

vertical marketing — packaging a solution differently for different industries (Wikipedia)

video marketing — incorporating videos in online marketing, leveraging YouTube (Pixability)

viral marketing — tapping into existing social networks to spread a marketing idea (Wikipedia)

web marketing — marketing on the web, synonymous with online marketing (Web Marketing Today)

word-of-mouth marketing — when happy customers spread your marketing message (WOMMA)

youth marketing — targeting young audiences, often using emerging channels (Wikipedia)


Gamification is the use of game thinking and game mechanics in non-game contexts to engage users in solving problems. Gamification has been studied and applied in several domains, such as to improve user engagement
Gamification techniques strive to leverage people's natural desires for competition, achievement, status, self-expression, altruism, and closure.

A core gamification strategy is rewards for players who accomplish desired tasks. Types of rewards include points, achievement badges or levels, the filling of a progress bar, and providing the user with virtual currency.

Competition is another element of games that can be used in gamification. Making the rewards for accomplishing tasks visible to other players or providing leader boards are ways of encouraging players to compete.

Another approach to gamification is to make existing tasks feel more like games. Some techniques used in this approach include adding meaningful choice, onboarding with a tutorial, increasing challenge, and adding narrative

How to Sell Combs to Monks ?

3 sales professionals applied to work for a huge company. As they were all evenly qualified, the interviewer decided to set a sales challenge and the person who sold the most would be awarded the job.

The challenge was to sell combs to monks of any temple up in the mountains. "You have 3 days, and the person who sells the most will get the job" said the interviewer.

After 3 days, the 3 applicants returned, and reported their results.

Candidate 1 said "I managed to sell one comb. The monks scolded me, saying I was openly mocking them. Disappointed, I gave up and left. But on my way back, I saw a junior monk with an itchy scalp; he was constantly scratching his head. I told him the comb would help him with his scratching and he bought one comb"

Candidate 2 said "That's good, but I did better. I sold 10 combs." Excited, the interviewer asked "How did you do it?" Candidate 2 replied "I observed that the visitors had very messy hair due to the strong winds they faced while walking to the temple. I convinced the monk to give out combs to the visitors so they could tidy themselves up and show greater respect during their worship."

Candidate 3 stepped up "Not so fast, I sold more than both of them." "How many did you sell" asked the interviewer.

"A Thousand Combs"

"Wow! How did you do it?" the interviewer exclaimed.

"I went to one of the biggest temples there, and thanked the Senior Master for serving the people and providing a sacred place of worship for them. He was very gracious and said he would like to thank and appreciate his visitors for their support and devotion. I suggested that the best way would be to offer his visitors a momento and the blessing of Buddha. I showed him the wooden combs which I had engraved words of blessings and told him people would use the combs daily and would serve as a constant reminder to do good deeds. He liked the idea, and proceeded to order a thousand combs"

"You got lucky," one of the other candidates said bitterly.

"Not really," the interviewer countered.. "He had a plan, which was why he had the comb engraved prior to his visit. Even if that temple did not want it, another one surely would."

"There is more," the third candidate smiled. "I went back to the temple yesterday to check on the Master. He said many visitors told their friends and family about the comb with the Buddha's blessing. Now even more people are visiting every day. Everyone is asking for the comb, and giving generous donations too! The temple is more popular than ever, and the Master says he will run out of the combs in a month... and will need to order more!"

Learning Points:

The three different candidates show us the different levels of sales performance:

Candidate 1 displayed the most basic level, which is to meet the prospect's personal needs. The monk with the itchy scalp had a personal need; it was specific to him only.

Candidate 2 shows the next level - anticipating and creating new needs for the prospect. Perhaps the monk doesn't have an obvious need for the comb, but how can it still be beneficial to him? When you can educate the prospect on new possibilities and benefits for his business, you are already outperforming your competitors.

Candidate 3 demonstrates the best level of all; an ongoing relationship resulting in repeat sales and referrals. Everyone was a winner, the monk, the devotees, the 3rd candidate and the interviewer. Help your prospects benefit their prospects, to create maximum value. View each prospect not as individuals, but also their contacts and network beyond them. See each customer as lifetime clients instead of one time sales.

Our beliefs and thoughts shape our actions and ultimately our results. 

When faced with a challenge, how do you respond? And how big do you think?

*Arun V Mathew*

What is generally thought and said about Sales profession and what it really is !

The Pessimist says the glass is half empty; The Optimist says the glass is half full: The Sales Rep says “Let’s talk about ice”.

I’ve seen about a half-dozen versions of this meme this week: some with blue glasses, some with green glasses, some changing it up a bit to emphasize the “benefits of ice”.  I am completely confused why this is getting so much traction!  I understand that it’s catchy and fun, and as a sales rep myself I had a “heck yes!” moment, but in my experience the “up sell” isn’t always the best approach.
I never pictured myself as a sales rep.  The word “sales” used to make me cringe; a mental image of Gordon Gekko from Wall Street (the 1987 version) flashing in my head – gross!  I was going to be a creative event designer – a rock star sales team would bring me clients willing to spend a year’s salary on an event.  The reality: I needed to start by becoming a member of said rock star sales team, which is where I am now, learning to be a rock star.  In the past two years of my sales journey, however, I realized sales is not about selling at all; it’s about consulting.
Here are 3 things my rock-star-sales-rep self would say:
Don’t try to push a product or service on a client that is truly happy with what they’ve got. By forcing a sale, you risk damaging the trust you’ve worked so hard to build.  Who will your client go to the next time they need a glass of water if they no longer trust you?
I can hear it now: “but that’s the whole point of sales!” – not an incorrect statement, to a point.  There is a fine line between pushing a product or service that is genuinely unwanted or unneeded and showing a client an option they may not have realized existed.
Figure out why the client isn’t happy with their current product or service; figure out what problem they are trying to solve.  It’s easy to assume the client wants ice – but what if they want hot water or no water so the glass can be re-purposed?
Establish the client’s end goal and guide them to selecting the right product or service to reach that goal.  This does two things: the client feels satisfied by selecting a course of action (as opposed to having one forced upon them) and opens a level of trust for the client to come back and ask your opinion for future beverages.
Notice a theme here?  The goal of the rock-star-sales-rep is to make the client happy.
With that, I leave you with my version of the “let’s talk about ice” meme:


Sell me this PEN

I personally never thought anyone would actually say, “sell me this pen” in a sales interview. I was wrong. It will happen to you too. And to avoid panic, you should know exactly what to say back.
I am going to give you the right sales framework to respond perfectly every time. The point is, one day it will happen to you and I want you to be prepared. Because if you start to describe how smooth the pen feels and how shiny the pen looks, it may not work.
You can memorize the script, but more importantly, memorize the sales framework at the end.
Here you go…
CEO: Do me a favor, sell me this pen. (reaches across to hand me the pen)
Me: (I slowly roll the pen between my index and thumb fingers.) When was the last time you used a pen?
CEO: This morning.
Me: Do you remember what kind of pen that was?
CEO: No.
Me: Do you remember why you were using it to write?
CEO: Yes. Signing a few new customer contracts.
Me: Well I’d say that’s the best use for a pen (we have a subtle laugh).
Wouldn’t you say signing those new customer contracts is an important event for the business? (nods head) Then shouldn’t it be treated like one. What I mean by that is, here you are signing new customer contracts, an important and memorable event. All while using a very unmemorable pen.
We grew up, our entire lives, using cheap BIC pens because they get the job done for grocery lists and directions. But we never gave it much thought to learn what’s best for more important events.
This is the pen for more important events. This is the tool you use to get deals done. Think of it as a symbol for taking your company to the next level. Because when you begin using the right tool, you are in a more productive state of mind, and you begin to sign more new customer contracts.
Actually. You know what? Just this week I shipped ten new boxes of these pens to Emaar’s Head Office and 15 to Damac's Office.
Unfortunately, this is my last pen today (reach across to hand pen back to CEO). So, I suggest you get this one. Try it out. If you’re not happy with it, I will personally come back next week to pick it up. And it won’t cost you a dime.
What do you say?
CEO: (picks jaw up off floor) Yes.
See how simple that was. The CEO loved it. Why?
Here’s the simple sales framework I used to answer “sell me this pen”. Memorize it for yourself.
  1. Find out how they last used a pen (gather info)
  2. Emphasize the importance of the activity they last used a pen (respond to info)
  3. Sell something bigger than a pen, like a state of mind (deliver info)
  4. Ask for the buy (closing)
Remember, it’s not about actually selling a pen. It’s about showing how well you can sell a product.
And even though there are an infinite number of answers to this interview question, it’s easy to memorize a simple formula. Take 15 minutes today to practice the script above.

Customer Relationship softwares -CRM softwares - Vs Microsoft Dynamics CRM is the world’s most popular On-Demand CRM platform today. They are the proven leaders in on-demand customer relationship management. The solutions provided by combine award-winning functionality, proven integration, point-and-click customization, global capabilities, and the best user experience and the result is CRM success.

The comprehensive suite of On-Demand business services offered by comprises of:

a)     Sales: Salesforce SFA enables companies to drive sales productivity, increase visibility, and expand revenues with an affordable, easy-to-deploy service that   delivers success to companies of all sizes.

b)    Service & Support: The Salesforce solution for customer service gets companies up and running in a matter of weeks with a call center application that is loved by agents and a customer self-service application that generates new levels of customer loyalty.

c)     Marketing: Salesforce Marketing enables closed-loop marketing to execute, manage, and analyze the results of multichannel campaigns.

d)    Analytics: Salesforce Analytics empowers business users at every level to gain relevant insight and analysis. With real-time reporting, calculations, and dashboards, businesses can optimize performance, decision making, and resource allocation.

e)     Partner Relationship Management (PRM): Salesforce Partners makes it easy for partners to access leads, collaborate on deals, and locate all the information they need in order to be successful. The Salesforce Partners is seamlessly integrated with Salesforce SFA to deliver unparalleled visibility to the company's entire sales pipeline for direct and indirect channels.

f)     Custom Applications: Build enterprise-class applications on’s powerful on-demand platform. Deliver all your company's business applications in a single environment with one data model, one sharing model, and one user interface.

g)    Industry Applications: Meeting the industry-specific needs with’s award-winning CRM, a broad variety of on-demand apps from the AppExchange, and the platform. Our industry applications are built on the successes of hundreds of companies in your industry. And because no two companies are exactly alike, all industry apps are fully and easily customizable.

h)     AppExchange Applications: The AppExchange is your one-stop marketplace for on-demand business applications. The AppExchange makes it easy to find, sample, and select from hundreds of apps for your business, all pre-integrated with Salesforce.

Email Marketing :Cold Email for Prospects and update emails for customers

Intimation to customers about being acquired

Dear Elan Guides customer,

We have some exciting news to share.

We are pleased to announce that on January 13, 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ( acquired the rights to our entire offering of CFA test preparation materials, and intends to further develop the product.

Please be assured that and your Dashboard will remain in place as you study for June and December Exams.

We are excited to share our future plans with you as they come further into focus. Compelling new products are in the works. It is gratifying that Wiley sees the same value in Elan Guides that you have over the last few years.

There is much more to come but I wanted to quickly reach out with this news. You can expect additional emails from Elan Guides and Wiley over the coming weeks. Please reach out to us on Facebook to share your thoughts.

I look forward to your comments.

Basit Shajani, CFA

Founder, Elan Guides